When you think of Honda, what is the first thing that comes to mind? For many people, VTEC defines what makes Honda engines so iconic. The Honda B-series is the engine series that introduced VTEC to the world. As such, the B-series, and the B16 engine in particular, is what launched the Japanese brand from a civilian brand into a respected option for those that wanted a bit more performance from a small displacement 4-cylinder.
Beyond the B16’s inclusion of VTEC, it was also one of the most efficient engines in the world at the time. With a tiny 1.6L of displacement, the B16 was able to produce 160 horsepower in factory form. For the nerdier readers out there, that means that the B16 4-cylinder produced 100 horsepower per liter; a figure typically achieved by high-performance engines in cars 5 to 10 times more expensive than a JDM Civic Type R.
The Honda B16 engine has cemented itself in the JDM aftermarket scene as one of the most modifiable and notorious Japanese 4-cylinders ever made. One of the reasons that it is so popular in the aftermarket community is its reliability, having very few common problems. With the right modifications, there are B16 engines out there edging close to the 1,000 horsepower mark.
In this guide, we’ll cover the Honda B16, including its specifications, performance capabilities, common modifications, and reliability.
Honda B16 Engine Specifications
|Displacement||1.6L (1,595 cc)|
|Valvetrain||DOHC w/ VTEC|
|Bore x Stroke||81 mm × 77.4 mm (3.19 in × 3.05 in)|
|Compression Ratio||10.2:1 – 10.8:1|
|Weight||Long Block ≈ 306 lbs – 395 lbs|
|Horsepower||150-182 hp @ 7,400 – 8,200 RPM|
|Torque (lb-ft)||111-118 lb-ft @ 6,300 – 7,500 RPM|
|VTEC Engagement||5,200 – 6,100 RPM|
The Honda B16 4-cylinder was offered in 8 variants over its 13-year production run between 1988 and 2001. While most of the core attributes stayed the same regardless of the variant, there were some key differences between the engines. Compression is the biggest factor in the differences in power of the variants, with the B16B from the EK9 Honda Civic Type R having the highest compression at 10.8:1. The B16B was also unique in the fact that it had an increased deck height, upgraded pistons, new crankshaft, larger intake ports, larger throttle body, and other significant upgrades over the B16A.
The Honda B16 has the smallest displacement of the entire B-Series platform. With only 1.6L of displacement, it is outsized by the Honda B17 engine with a displacement of 1.7L, the Honda B18 engine with a displacement of 1.8L, and the Honda B20 engine with, you guessed it, 2.0L of displacement. Despite the small displacement, the B16 engine is able to produce a respectable amount of power due to multiple innovations by Honda. The B16 introduced a dual overhead cam arrangement to the Honda 4-cylinder formula. The B-Series was sold as the higher performance version of the Honda D-Series which were all single overhead cam engines.
In addition to DOHC, the B16 was also the first engine to feature VTEC variable valve timing. As one of Honda’s most defining features, VTEC allowed the B16 to have dynamic performance characteristics higher in the rev range. VTEC optimized the B16 and compensated for the low displacement.
What Cars Use the Honda B16 Engine?
During the B16’s lengthy production run, it was used in 24 different Honda models. The 1.6L 4-cylinder was most prevalently found in Civics of the era. The most common USDM Civic chassis that featured the B16 include the EG2 Civic Del Sol, and EM1 Civic. While the US only received two variants of the Honda 1.6L, other parts of the world were lucky enough to get eight variants. Here is the complete list of all of the Hondas that use the B16 1.6L 4-cylinder:
First Generation B16A
- 1989-1993 Honda Integra XSi
- 1989-1991 Honda CRX SiR (EF8)
- 1989-1991 Honda Civic SiR (EF9)
Second Generation B16A
- 1992–1993 Honda Integra “XSi” (DA6, DA8)
- 1992–1994 Honda Civic SiR/SiRII (EG6)
- 1992–1993 Honda Civic Ferio SiR (EG9)
- 1992–1995 Honda CR-X del Sol SiR (EG2)
- 1996–1998 Honda Civic SiR/SiRII (EK4)
- 1996–2000 Honda Civic Ferio SiR (EK4)
- 1997–2000 Civic Type R
- CRX’1.6 DOHC VTEC (EE8) – European market (EDM)
- Civic’1.6 DOHC VTEC (EE9) – European market (EDM)
- 1992-2000 Honda Civic EDM VTi (EG6/EG9 & EK4)
- 1992-1997 Honda Civic del Sol EDM VTi (EG)
- 1996-1997 Honda Civic del Sol VTEC USDM (EG2)
- 1996-1998 Honda Civic AUDM & NZDM Vti-R (EK4)
- 1999-2000 Honda Civic AUDM Vti-R (EM1)
- 1999-2000 Honda Civic USDM Si (EM1)
- 1999-2000 Honda Civic SiR Philippines (EK4 Sedan)
- 1999-2000 Honda Civic CDM SiR (EM1)
- 1994-1995 Del Sol VTEC USDM VERSION
- 1996-2000 Civic Si-RII (JDM version) (EK4)
- 1996–2000 Honda Civic – Middle East & South Africa VTEC (SO3, SO4)
Stock Honda 1.6L Engine Performance
Out of the box, the Honda B16 is an engine that maximizes performance while still remaining economical. Its efficiency was unparalleled at the time in terms of its raw output per liter. At 100 horsepower per liter, there were very few cars, and none that were widely available to the average buyer, that could match that figure. To put that into perspective, the 1999 Ferrari F355 only slightly edged out the B16’s efficiency with 108 horsepower per liter. Even today, modern Porsches and Lamborghinis average around 110-115 horsepower per liter.
In addition to being efficient, the B16 is also light. In practical terms, that helped in terms of the power-to-weight ratios of the vehicle equipped with the B16. Weighing in at just over 300 lbs, the Honda B16A is one of the lightest 4-cylinders out there due to its aluminum block. The outlier here is the B16B which weighs close to 400 lbs due to its longer deck height and heavier top end.
In terms of how the B16 acts in factory form, many of the performance aspects depend on the B16 variant. Due to the fact that some B16 variants have higher compression caused by differences in construction, peak torque, horsepower, and VTEC engagement also vary slightly between the variants. B16 engine variants with lower compression tend to have lower redlines, earlier VTEC engagement, and earlier peak torque production. Overall, VTEC engagement varies between 5,200 and 6,100 rpm. Peak power is produced high in the rev range due to VTEC as well. Overall, the B16 is an engine that requires high-rpm driving to get the most out of it.
How Much Horsepower Can A Honda B16 Handle?
The Honda B16 4-cylinder is a very strong engine in factory form. Due to the fact that the internals of the engine are so resilient, it isn’t uncommon to see stock Honda B16s pushing over 300 horsepower. However, that figure varies a significant amount based on numerous factors. The engine’s condition is a very important factor in determining how much power it can handle. The most solid general advice is to ensure that your B16 engine is in good internal condition before trying to stretch its limits with power mods.
With that being said, with the right strengthening modifications like forged pistons, cylinder sleeves, fueling mods like meth injection, and a proper tune, B16s have been known to be able to push upwards of 1,000 horsepower. Obviously, the amount of horsepower that a B16 can make depends entirely on budget. Don’t expect to make any more than 250-300 horsepower without spending a sizable chunk of change.
Honda B16 Engine Upgrades
All of the engines in the Honda B-series are known for their unparalleled reliability. In fact, if you are shooting for a “mild” horsepower figure from your B16 (200-250whp), most B-series enthusiasts will tell you that you won’t have to crack open the engine at all.
While it is fun to consider building up a big-power turbo Honda B16 engine, it is important to first consider what the end goal of your build is. Are you shooting for a daily driven B16 Civic with a bit of extra oomph? A B16-powered drag car? Ultimately, the end goal for your B16 build will dictate the modifications that you’ll need to do. The options for a modified B16 are truly endless with the only limitation being cost. With that being said, 200-250 horsepower is a very achievable goal that won’t break the bank.
The most common high-horsepower modification for the B16 4-cylinder is a turbocharger kit. In stock form, the B16 is the perfect candidate for forced induction. With that being said, higher boost loads will require internal upgrades. Since the B16, other than the B16B, has a comparably low compression ratio, it requires little modification to make reliable boost. In general, most people consider the B16’s stock internal hardware pretty solid. While the Honda B16’s internal components are strong, figures beyond 300whp will require some internal work.
Honda 1.6L 4-Cylinder Headers
A B16 header upgrade is one of the most common and praised applications for the B16 engine. The factory B16 exhaust system is typically cited for being fairly restrictive. The best way to improve exhaust flow is to upgrade the factory exhaust manifold to one that is free-flowing. When it comes to B16 headers, there are a few different styles to choose from.
One of the most common B16 header arrangements is a 4-2-1 tri-Y design. With B16 4-2-1 headers, each exhaust port gets its own primary tube which then merge into two tubes, then down to one before terminating into a collector. 4-2-1 B16 headers are the best option if you are looking for better mid-range performance. A lot of the 4-2-1 header’s performance comes from the fact that they are extremely good at maintaining exhaust velocity, which can also be beneficial for top-end performance.
4-1 B16 headers are another very common choice for the Honda 1.6L 4-cylinder. Where 4-2-1 headers merge into two tubes before merging again into a single tube, 4-1 B16 headers go straight from four primary tubes down to a single tube before dumping into a collector. Compared to 4-2-1 headers, 4-1 B16 headers are the best option for high-rpm performance. 4-1 headers pair best with VTEC, as the exhaust characteristics are the most optimal around VTEC’s activation point.
Skunk2 is perhaps the most well-known B-series header manufacturer and is known for their quality products at a reasonable price. Their Alpha V2 4-2-1 header is one of the best B16 headers on the market, increasing power through the entire rev range.
Honda B16 Engine Turbo
Forced induction is a very popular modification on the Honda B-series and the B16 in particular. A lot of Civic owners opt to turbocharge their cars with a prepackaged turbo kit that comes with all of the necessary components. As we stated earlier, the B16 is an extremely resilient engine that can handle over 100+ more horsepower than stock with no significant internal upgrades.
Despite its overall strength, many experienced B16 turbo enthusiasts still advocate for reinforcing the B16’s bottom end, upgrading the fuel system, replacing the timing chain assembly, refreshing the valve springs, upgrading the factory head gasket. These precautions further bolster a 250-300 horsepower turbocharged B16 against high internal forces introduced by forced induction.
Once you reach the 350-400 horsepower, more extensive modifications are required. At this point, it is a good idea to have a machine shop resurface the cylinder head, the block, and an increased bore. This is also the point where you’ll need to upgrade to forged internals. An upgraded crankshaft, forged pistons, rods, and upgraded rod & main bearings should all be considered at that point.
The 400-horsepower threshold is also when you should consider sleeving your B16’s block. This will reduce the amount of internal wear that your B16 experiences and act as an additional level of reinforcement. It also allows for larger bore diameters.
An upgraded fueling system is also necessary for high-horsepower B16 builds. The primary components that should be upgraded include the factory fuel pump, injectors, fuel lines, and fuel rail. For 400+ horsepower, you’ll need a AEM 340lph fuel pump (minimum), 1000cc injectors, -8AN supply fuel lines, -6AN return fuel lines, and a high-flow fuel rail.
Honda B16 Turbo Supporting Modifications
An upgraded engine management system is a requirement for turboing a K20A3. Most enthusiasts in the Honda community swear by the KPro ECU. This will allow you to adjust cam angle, ignition timing, fueling, and multiple other key aspects of the engine performance.
Since all Hondas equipped with the B16 engine from the factory are front-wheel drive, it is important to consider how you’ll be putting the power down. Most enthusiasts with high-horsepower turbo B16 Hondas will agree that it is difficult to transfer beyond 350 horsepower to the pavement. The extra power will also unquestionably cause more strain on a number of different parts that would benefit from an upgrade.
While it is generally stated that factory Civic axles are capable of withstanding upwards of 500 hp, power levels beyond that can cause axle warp. Traction bars are a potential solution to bolster the axles against the frame while also preventing wheel hop. For B16 drag builds, sticky and wide tires are a necessity. Without them, you’ll spin all of your power away.
With a higher horsepower figure comes more strain on the transmission. The factory-equipped 5-speed found in the RSX and Civic is a good transmission but should be upgraded with the introduction of high boost. One of the most commonly cited transmission upgrades for the K20A3 is an upgraded clutch. At high horsepower ranges clutch slip is common.
Most Common Honda 1.6L Engine Problems
As many people are probably aware, Honda 4-cylinder engines are some of the most reliable powerplants out there if maintained properly. In many cases, B16 4-cylinders have been known to last hundreds of thousands of miles with very few issues with regular servicing. Of course, that stands true for stock B16 engines. Generally speaking, reliability is inversely proportional to horsepower with the B16 and most other engines for that matter. With that being said, moderately upgraded B16 engines can also be extremely reliable depending on the engine tune, quality of parts, and other related factors.
So, when it comes to common B16 engine problems, the list is relatively short. The B16 problems listed below can’t even really be called common but rather the most common. Most of the issues associated with the Honda B16 are due to the fact that the older variants are over 30 years old at this point. With any engine of that age, rubber hoses, seals, and other wear-and-tear items tend to degrade, causing associated problems. An inconsistent idle is one of the most common B16 problems that arises from degrading parts. Typically, a poor B16 idle is caused by either cracked vacuum lines or a failing idle air control valve. Both of those can be fixed relatively easily and inexpensively.
Leaking B16 camshaft seals are also somewhat common on older B16 engines. Over time, the rubber camshaft seals will degrade and begin to leak oil. While it might seem like an intimidating fix, they can be replaced rather easily by using a seal press tool. The process can be done without having to remove the cams from the engine. The valve cover, rear main seal, and oil pan are also very common locations of oil leaks.
Honda B16 Engine Guide Summary
It is unquestionable that the Honda B-series is one of the most impressive 4-cylinder platforms ever made. Its high efficiency, strong construction, and high modifiability make it the engine of choice for countless tuners and enthusiasts around the world.
The Honda B16 4-cylinder marked the beginning of a new era for Honda performance engines and pioneered some of the most important advancements that Honda is known for as far as engine technology is concerned. Performance VTEC was introduced with the first generation B16A and would go on to become one of the most beloved aspects of both the B-Series and later K-Series Honda engines. The B16 was also one of the most efficient engines that Honda had ever developed at the time, boasting 100 horsepower per liter in most B16 variants.
While stock B16 performance is impressive, the 1.6L 4-cylinder truly comes alive when modifications are introduced. Due to the fact that the B16 has strong internals from the factory, it is able to withstand nearly 100 more horsepower than stock without the need for any serious internal upgrades. Turbocharging a B16 is arguably the best way to maximize performance from a Honda 1.6L engine. The B16’s strength and high-revving nature make it a solid option for forced induction, but that route can get expensive if you plan on surpassing the 300-horsepower threshold.
Ultimately, the Honda B16 is still one of the most popular 4-cylinder engines in the world, even 30 years after its initial release. That says something about the engine’s overall abilities. If you enjoyed this article and are looking for more Honda content, check out our Honda K20 vs K24 Engine Guide. As always, safe driving!