At this point, the Chevy LS has become one of the most notorious engines in nearly every motorsport arena. The LS has proven its versatility through decades of trial and torture in nearly every application imaginable. It was the powerplant of choice for two generations of the Corvette and was used in multiple other GM vehicles like the Camaro, Cadillac CTS-V, and Chevy Tahoe. The LS2 was even used as the basis of the NASCAR Specification Engine in the Camping World Series East and West divisions starting in 2006. It is also a fan favorite in hot rod communities, drifting communities, and endurance racing communities. The LS can do it all.
However, the LS is an old format at this point. The original LS1 that started it all was released to the world in 1997 with the C5 Corvette. In the 25 years since the LS’ release, a lot has changed in terms of engine technology. That’s where the LT1 engine comes into play. The Chevy LT1 is another engine with rich history and three variants. In the context of this article – and what I just said – we’ll be talking about the Gen V Small Block. The LT1 has taken the reigns from the LS at this point and has introduced an array of controversial modern features into the mix.
We’ll cover all of that in more detail below, and there is truly a lot to cover. Despite performing a similar job, the LS and LT engines have very little in common. To prevent this article from being 100 pages long, we’ll focus specifically on comparing the LS3 and Gen V LT1, as they’re a solid match.
Chevy LS3 History
By the time that the LS3 rolled around in 2008, Chevy had already firmly established their updated LS small-block formula. The modern LS layout was largely a blank sheet design but borrowed learned elements from the Gen I and Gen II Chevy small blocks, originally released in 1954. Despite being released four decades later, the LS family has a couple of interchangeable parts with earlier Gen I and Gen II small-blocks including connecting rod bearings and valve lifters.
Prior to the LS3, Chevy had already released 4 versions of the LS, including the LS1, LS6, LS2, and LS7. In terms of their overall construction, all of the LS variants are pretty similar. The 1997-released LS1 kicked off the new generation of Chevy small-block design with some notable improvements over the Gen I and Gen II small-blocks including alluminum block construction (retaining cast iron blocks for trucks and SUVs), a higher flowing cylinder head, stronger rotating assembly, larger camshafts, and electronic fuel injection among other things. The LS3 retained all of these benefits over the original small-block design and improved on them.
The Chevy LS3 belongs to the Gen IV group of LS engines and was first seen in the 2008 Corvette. Gen III and Gen IV LS architecture is very similar, but there are a few key differences between the LS1 and LS3. One of the most significant differences is displacement.
The LS1 has 5.7 liters of displacement while the LS3 has 6.2L of displacement. That immediately gives the performance advantage to the LS3. Additionally, the LS3 has a significantly better flowing head than the LS1, on both the intake and exhaust sides. The LS3 also features an improved intake manifold design with less turbulent intake runners which improves airflow to the head.
Chevy LS3 Engine Specifications
|Configuration||V8 Small Block|
|Displacement||376 Cubic Inches (6.2L)|
|Fuel Injection||Electronic Fuel Injection|
|Valvetrain||16-valve 2 Overhead Valves Per Cylinder|
|Bore x Stroke||4.065″ (103.25mm) x 3.622″ (92mm)|
|Horsepower||430/436hp @ 5,900 rpm (Standard/Dual-Mode Exhaust)|
|Torque (lb-ft)||424/428 lb-ft @ 4,600 rpm (Standard/Dual-Mode Exhaust)|
From a technical and performance perspective, the LS3 is a very impressive engine. While older Chevy small-blocks are still loved by tons of automotive communities, the refinement of the LS3 put it in a league of its own. Beyond its impressive horsepower and torque output, the LS3 utilizes some notable strength and rigidity-enhancing features as well.
The LS3 has a deep skirt design that extends past the crankshaft centerline, which enhances the LS3’s rigidity and decreases engine vibration. LS3s are 6 bolt main engines, meaning that they use 6 bolts per cylinder to secure the heads to the cast alluminum block. This is an extremely strong setup and increases reliability in higher horsepower ranges. Additionally, the LS3 block features a structural oil pan which increases chassis rigidity.
The LS3’s rotating assembly is extremely strong due to a durable iron crankshaft and powdered metal connecting rods. They also utilize flat-top alluminum alloy pistons which are not only extremely strong but also lightweight. Lightweight piston construction improves overall throttle responsiveness and efficiency.
Chevy LT1 History
The Chevy LT1 is an engine with a rich (and somewhat confusing) history, similar to the LS. To this point, there have been three iterations of the LT1 engine, the first originating in 1970. The first LT-1 (note the hyphen) was a defining engine for Chevy at the time. It featured 5.7 liters of displacement, an 11:1 compression ratio, and 370 horsepower.
The second iteration of the LT1 (no hyphen) was introduced in the 1992 Corvette, five years into the Gen II small block’s production run. The Gen 2 LT1 retained a few important characteristics cemented by the version that preceded it. Like the LT-1, the Gen II LT1 displaces 5.7 liters and featured a four-bolt-main block. The two also share the same bore spacing, both featuring 4.4-inch bore centers which is a commonality through every generation of Chevy small block.
While they are similar in a number of ways, the Gen II LT1 was undoubtedly improved over the LT-1. The Gen II features a reverse-flow cooling system, meaning that the cylinder heads are cooled before the block. That results in lower cylinder temperatures and higher compression as a result. The Gen II LT1 produces 300 horsepower and 330 lb-ft of torque.
Fast forward 18 years and we arrive in 2014, marking the release of the Gen V LT1. Over the 18-year span between the Gen II and Gen V LT1, a lot changed in terms of engine technology. That is directly reflected in the Gen V’s construction. The Gen V is dramatically different from the Gen II in multiple ways. For example, the Gen V has a displacement of 6.2 liters, utilizes a cast aluminum block, has a six-bolt-main block, and is direct-injected.
Gen V LT1 Engine Specifications
|Engine||Chevy Gen V LT1|
|Configuration||V8 Small Block|
|Displacement||376 Cubic Inches (6.2L)|
|Fuel Injection||Direct Injection|
|Valvetrain||16-valve, Continuous Variable Valve Timing (VVT)|
|Bore x Stroke||4.065″ (103.25mm) x 3.622″ (92mm)|
|Horsepower||455/460hp @ 6,000 rpm|
|Torque (lb-ft)||455-465 lb-ft @ 4,400/4,600 rpm|
The Gen V LT1 is the result of perhaps the most significant Chevy small-block redesign in history. Like Chevy generation leaps in the past, the Gen V LT1 is a blank sheet design from Chevy that borrows legacy staples from previous generations. A couple of the most notable similarities include a cam-in-block pushrod architecture and 4.400-inch bore centers.
Outside of those similarities, there are a ton of dramatic changes/improvements to the LT1 and the Gen V small-block family. In fact, there are so many changes that we only have the space to cover the most notable ones. Standout changes include oiling system enhancements, the inclusion of PCV-integrated rocker covers, the addition of dual-equal cam phasing (variable valve timing), direct injection, and active fuel management.
Chevy LS vs LT – Comparison
On paper, it is easy to see why the LS vs LT argument exists. In terms of sheer stats, the LS3 and LT1 look like a very even matchup. Both are performance 16-valve V8s with 6.2 liters of displacement, aluminum heads and blocks, and identical bore and stroke. With that being said, the changes made between Chevy’s Gen IV and Gen V small-block architecture are numerous.
The introduction of a few of the Gen V LT1’s high-tech features have been met with skepticism at best and downright hatred at worst. Long-time LS fans dislike the introduction of direct injection and active fuel management in particular. They have valid arguments for that too, which we’ll cover a bit later. Despite that, the LT1 is undoubtedly the more technically advanced engine and features some unarguable improvements over the previous generation small block.
Chevy LS vs LT – Block Design
An engine’s block design is one of the most important considerations from a power perspective. Chevy’s small-blocks have always been known for their ability to be tuned and heavily modified without too much internal fuss. Both the LS3 and LT1 have extremely strong blocks that are factory equipped to withstand a great deal of abuse.
Both the LS3 and LT1 feature aluminum cylinder blocks. In fact, the LS and LT platforms have a similar block design. While both can withstand significantly more-than-stock power, the LT1 has the stronger block. A factory LS block is rated for around 700 horsepower reliability, while the LT1 is rated for around 900 reliable horsepower. This boils down to the LT1’s new aluminum casting method and the inclusion of gusseted water jackets which increase strength around the cylinder walls.
The LT1 also features eight under-piston oil sprayers which spray cooling oil on the bottom of each piston and surrounding cylinder wall. This is beneficial for multiple reasons. The added oil not only reduces friction but also reduces the temperature inside the combustion chamber. The result is higher compression, more power, and better efficiency.
Chevy LS vs LT – Fuel Injection
One of the most significant, and perhaps most controversial, changes made to the LT1 is the introduction of direct injection. The Gen V is the first small block generation to feature direct injection. The Gen IV LS3 features electronic port injection, which seems to be favored by many small block enthusiasts. Carbon buildup on valves in direct injection engines is a very common issue and one that faces the LT1 as well. Removing the heads to remove carbon buildup is a headache that you’d ideally like to avoid and a primary reason why so many Chevy enthusiasts are opposed to it. It also presents tuning obstacles for those that are used to tuning port injected engines like the LS.
With that being said, there are very significant advantages to direct injection as well. With direct injection, fuel is sprayed directly into the combustion chamber while the intake valves exclusively supply air. Direct injection is a more precise method of fuel injection as the fuel injection spray pattern can be better controlled. This results in a more complete burn inside of the cylinder. That results in increased horsepower and around a 15% increase in fuel efficiency.
Direct injection also requires an immense amount of fuel pressure to operate. As a result, the LT1 requires an additional high-pressure fuel pump in conjunction with a fuel tank-mounted one. The Gen V’s high-pressure fuel pump is situated in the valley between cylinder heads. This helps reduce noise while simultaneously keeping the engine’s size to a minimum.
Chevy LS vs LT – Heads and Valvetrain
Chevy’s small-block cylinder heads have always been known to be great. The LS3’s racing-derived cylinder head design had extremely high flow figures which contributed significantly to its overall performance. The LT1 needed to have a new cylinder head design to work in unison with its direct injection system. For that reason, the LT1 features a completely new cylinder head casting. The new design is made to support high airflow at high rpms while also maintaining good low rpm torque characteristics.
Looking directly at the differences between the LS3 and LT1 cylinder heads, you’ll see some immediate discrepancies. The intake and exhaust valves on the LS3 and LT1 heads have been flipped, with the LT’s exhaust valves to the right of the intake valves. The inverse is true for the LS3. This marginally improved flow on the LT1 and relocated the spark plugs to a better location for direct injection.
The Gen V LT1 features a smaller 59.02cc combustion chamber in order to compensate for its dished pistons. In unison, both of those attributes combine to increase the LT1’s compression ratio to 11.5:1. The Gen V intake ports were also redesigned to have a straight and rectangular form. Valve angles were also changed between Gen IV and Gen V.
The LT1 also uses a significantly larger diameter camshaft that features a new rear cam bearing. The larger lobe gives better valve action and is smoother than a smaller cam. It also has an additional “trilobe” which is responsible for driving the additional high-pressure fuel pump.
Chevy LS vs LT – VVT (Variable Valve Timing)
While variable valve timing isn’t a new concept to Chevy, or very many other manufacturers, the VVT system features in the Gen V LT1 is their most advanced system yet. Unlike the binary variable valve timing that can be found on earlier generation LS engines, the LT1 has continuous variable valve timing. In most cases, variable valve timing is initiated at a particular rpm to give increased high rpm performance. That is how Honda’s VTEC or earlier gen LS VVT systems operate. The LT1, on the other hand, has VVT activated constantly.
The LT1 does this by utilizing an advanced cam phaser. This adjusts the angle of the camshaft, advancing or retarding timing for any driving situation. At low rpms or at idle, the cam is in its fully advanced position which makes the idle buttery smooth. At high rpms, the phaser can retard timing in order to achieve maximum airflow and high-rpm power. The magic of the continuous system is that the phaser can make adjustments on the fly, always adjusting the cam position to its optimal place.
The result of this system is an extremely flat torque curve, high specific output without sacrificing engine response, better overall drivability, and a crazy smooth idle.
Chevy LS vs LT – Active/Dynamic Fuel Management
Active fuel management is another system that is present on both the LS and LT1. However, the system on the LT1 is further refined and less intrusive. The system has gone by many different names over the years, but was known as “Active Fuel Management” on Gen IV engines and is now known as “Dynamic Fuel Management” on Gen V engines. Both systems systematically shut down cylinders based on driving conditions to improve overall fuel economy.
On LS engines, active fuel management was a binary system that was either on or off. The active system on LS engines is only capable of running on 4 or 8 cylinders. This system was generally disliked by the small block community for being intrusive and far from seamless. Since the system would shut down and restart 4 cylinders at a time, the switch was jarring.
With the LT1’s new dynamic fuel management system, a lot of the kinks of the previous “Active” system have been resolved. Unlike the active system, the dynamic system is able to shut down and reactivate cylinders individually, making the performance shift less intense and noticeable. The dynamic system takes sensor readings 80 times per second to determine the correct number of cylinders to run at a given time. It is also more reliable than the old system as Chevy has addressed the oil feed issues that caused issues in the past.
Chevy LS vs LT Conclusion
With the LT1 being a completely redesigned engine, there are a lot of differences between the LS and LT1. Chevy’s Gen V small block is their most advanced design yet. It really shows when you take into account all of its new high-tech features. While most of the LT1’s advanced tech is an improvement over the LS3, some would argue that it just adds more to go wrong.
Overall, the LS platform is known and loved for its simplicity. Its lack of fancy gizmos is what attracts so many enthusiasts to it for so many diverse applications. While Gen III and Gen IV Chevy engines are certainly more modern than Gen I and II small blocks, they are loved for many of the same reasons. In addition to being simple to work on, LS engines have massive aftermarket support as they’ve been around so long. That level of modifiability isn’t there yet for the Gen V LT1.
Regardless, the LT1 is a more sophisticated engine with a lot of performance-enhancing benefits. At its most fundamental level, it features a stronger block and better flowing cylinder heads than the LS3. Continuous variable valve timing is a hard feature to hate as it improves performance dramatically at all rpms. However, those modern features come at a much higher price than what you’d pay for an LS.